By Woodruff W. Bryne + British Interlingua Society
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Additional resources for A Concise English-Interlingua Dictionary + Short Interlingua Grammar and Vocabulary
E. the “same”, across languages. This is called the problem of cross-linguistic identification (Stassen 1985: 14–15, 1997: 8–9, 2000: 3–4; Croft 2003: 13–19). As Stassen (1985), among others, points out, a purely formal definition is not applicable cross-linguistically. If a definition is given in purely formal terms, it will exclude all formal means for encoding the domain that deviate from this definition. If negation, for example, was to be defined formally, say by the presence of a negative particle in the clause, this definition would not apply to languages that express negation with a construction involving an affix or a negative verb.
Typological samples can be stratified according to different principles, most often by genealogical groupings or by both genealogical and areal groupings. g. cultural or structural/typological. As already mentioned above, representativeness is the primary goal of the sample used in this study and the independence of the sample languages is subordinate to this goal. Independence is important in two respects: on the one hand it increases the validity of the quantitative generalizations made in Chapter 4, and on the other hand it contributes to the representativeness of the sample – if there are two samples with equal sizes, the one where the languages are more independent of each other is likely to be more representative of the universe.
The Komi-Zyrian and Korean examples illustrate situations where declarative main clauses with (non-existential) verbal predicates can or must be negated with alternative constructions. As shown by Kahrel's numbers, this is typologically less common than alternative negative marking in imperatives, existentials and non-verbals. 18 Introduction In this section I have provided some basis for the following discussions, introducing the reader to some central concepts used in this study and to the ways in which negation is expressed in the world's languages.